What is Urea?

Malaysian urea is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid. It occurs in all living organisms. Malaysian urea is the main component of urine and is responsible for the distinctive smell of urine. Urea is a component of urine and is a strong organic nitrogen compound. It is a colorless, transparent, highly viscous liquid that is widely used in various chemical and pharmaceutical applications. . Synthetic urea is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide and produced solidly. Urea is also branded as Carbamide. Malaysian urea is naturally produced when proteins or amino acids and ammonia decompose. Urea plays an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in mammalian urine. This solid is highly water soluble and is not nearly toxic. It is also not acidic and alkaline in terms of pH. Urea is highly used in fertilizers as a nitrogen source (N) and is an important raw material for the chemical industry.

Types of urea

  • Laboratory urea
  • Industrial urea
    The price of industrial urea is lower than laboratory and the percentage of instantular purity is lower.

Urea structure

Urea has a carbonyl group that has two carbon-connected amine groups. Urea is a monocarbonic acid amide and a one-carbon compound. It comes from carbonic acid. This totomer is carbamideic acid. Urea, also known as carbamide, which is an organic compound. This amide has two NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl functional group (C=O).  The urea molecule is planar. In solid urea, the oxygen center is involved in two N-H-O hydrogen bonds. A dense and energetically favorable hydrogen-bonding network is likely created at the expense of efficient molecular packing. The structure is completely open, the ribbons form tunnels with a square cross-section. The carbon in urea is described as sp2-combined, the C-N bonds have significant double bond character, and the carbonyl oxygen is basic compared to formaldehyde. The high water solubility of urea shows its ability in extensive hydrogen bonding with water. Due to its tendency to form porous frameworks, urea has the ability to trap many organic compounds. In these so-called chlorates, “guest” organic molecules are kept in the channels formed by interpenetrating spirals composed of hydrogen-bonded urea molecules. This behavior can be used to separate mixtures, for example, in the production of jet fuel and lubricating oils and in the separation of hydrocarbons. Because the helices are interconnected, all the helices in a crystal must have the same molecular strength. This is determined when the crystal is nucleated and thus can be forced by seeding. The obtained crystals have been used to separate the racial mixture.

The history of urea

Urea was first discovered in urine in 1727 by the Dutch scientist Hermann Boerhau, although the discovery is often attributed to the French chemist Hilaire Rolle. Friedrich Wöhler discovered that urea could be produced from inorganic raw materials, a major milestone in chemistry in 1828. He showed for the first time that a substance previously known only as a by-product could be synthesized in the laboratory without a biological starting point.

Industrial urea production

For industrial use, urea is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. Because large amounts of carbon dioxide are produced during the ammonia production process as a byproduct from hydrocarbons (mainly natural gas, or less petroleum derivatives) or sometimes from coal (steam shift reaction), urea plants almost always are located in the vicinity of the site. Where ammonia is produced. Although natural gas is the most economical and readily available raw material for ammonia plant production, the plants that use it They do not produce enough carbon dioxide from the process to convert all of the ammonia into urea. In recent years, new technologies such as the KM-CDR process have been developed for the recovery of supplemental carbon dioxide from the combustion exhaust gases produced in the reformed furnace of the ammonia synthesis gas plant, which allows independent operators of nitrogen fertilizer complexes to avoid the need To control and market ammonia as a separate product, as well as reduce their greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.

Urea technical specification table

Chemical formula of urea



Crystals or solid pellets


Colorless, odorless


1.33 g/cm3



Boiling point

132.7 °C

Melting point

It decomposes before boiling.

MSDS of urea

Urea in pure grades when released to soil, this material will hydrolyze into ammonium in a matter of days to several weeks. When released into the soil, this material may leach into groundwater. When released into water, this material may biodegrade to a moderate extent. When released into water, this material is not expected to evaporate significantly. This material has an experimentally-determined bio concentration factor (BCF) of less than 100. This material is not expected to significantly bio accumulate. When released into the air, this material is expected to be readily degraded by reaction with photo chemically produced hydroxyl radicals. When released into the air, this material is expected to have a half-life of less than 1 day and based on MSDS documents urea is an environment friendly chemical.

The produces large amount of this chemical and urea which has different specifications, ties the costs directly to gas prices. Consequently, new plants are only being built in areas with large natural gas reserves where prices are lower. Finished product is transported around the globe in large shipments of 30,000 metric tons. The market price for urea is directly related to the world price of natural gas and the demand for agricultural products. Prices can be very volatile, and at times, unpredictable.


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