About phosphate fertilizer
Solving the problem of late fruiting of plants and trees or their lack of proper growth has been one of the constant concerns of farmers and gardeners, and different people have always tried to find a solution to this problem. With the increasing progress of science, the agricultural industry was also affected, and with the introduction of various fertilizers, including phosphate fertilizers, the yield of agricultural products increased so that mankind does not face the problem of food insecurity. With the passage of time, the consumption of different fertilizers increased in order to increase the efficiency and fruiting of plants faster, and currently about 50% of the total consumption of fertilizers in the world is limited to black fertilizer or phosphate fertilizer.
Application of phosphate fertilizer
Phosphate fertilization of soils has always been important. Vast areas of agricultural land can be poor if the soil has a phosphate (P) deficiency. The term available phosphate is used because phosphate is the most immobile of major plant nutrients and if it is not in a soluble form it is difficult if not impossible for plants to get it. Phosphorus deficiency is generally not as easy to recognize in plants as are deficiencies in many other nutrients. A phosphorus deficient plant is usually stunted, thin-stemmed, and spindly, but its foliage is often dark, almost bluish, green. Thus, unless many larger, healthy plants are present to make a comparison, phosphorus-deficient plants often seem quite normal in appearance. In severe cases, phosphorus deficiency can cause yellowing and senescence of leaves. Some plants develop purple colors in their leaves and stems as a result of phosphorus deficiency, though other related stresses, such as cold temperatures, can also cause purple pigmentation. Phosphorus is needed in especially large amounts in meristematic tissues, where cells are rapidly dividing and enlarging. Phosphorus is very mobile within the plant, so when the supply is short, phosphorus in the older leaves is mobilized and transferred to the newer, rapidly growing leaves. Both the purpling and premature senescence associated with phosphorus deficiency is therefore most prominent on the older leaves. Phosphorus-deficient plants are also characterized by delayed maturity, sparse flowering, and poor seed quality. To accurately understand the use of phosphate fertilizer, you must have a complete understanding of the most important component of this fertilizer, which is phosphorus. After nitrogen, phosphorus is the most important vital substance required for the growth and development of various plants. Phosphate fertilizer is mostly used in areas where the soil is subjected to excessive washing, so it can be easily concluded that farmers in humid and rainy areas are the first line customers of this type of fertilizers. In general, phosphorus is an excellent source of nutrition for various grains such as wheat and barley, and for this reason, human food security is largely dependent on this vital element and the fertilizers containing it. It is necessary to know that the balance in the consumption of this fertilizer is very important, because excessive use of it causes the plant to burn and at the cost of the destruction of all the sufferings of the farmer and the gardener..
Properties of phosphate fertilizer
Considering the vital and influential role of phosphorus in the growth and development of various plants, phosphate fertilizer affects many vital activities of plants. This fertilizer helps to maintain the energy level inside the plant and also transfers it throughout the plant, and gardeners who intend to harvest their crops early should use this fertilizer. The most important properties of phosphate fertilizer for plants are:
- It increases the growth rate of the plant and makes the stems thicker
- It increases the resistance of the plant against irrigation with cold water
- It prevents delay in seed ripening and plant growth
- It reduces the number of pitted seeds
- Prevents leaf color change and narrowing
- It increases the number of seeds and leaves
- Prevents color change and shedding of old leaves
Phosphate fertilizer production method
To produce phosphate fertilizer, very accurate but not very complicated laboratory methods are used. Therefore, in the following, you will get to know a number of scientific terms that are used in the production process of this fertilizer. Before dealing with the production method of this fertilizer, we should know the sources of phosphate. The most important sources of phosphorus are:
Soil is known as the most important source of phosphate, and this element exists in the form of phosphate rock, phosphate soil, and other organic phosphate compounds, and usually the surface layers of the soil have more phosphorus than the lower layers.
The sediments on the bottom of the oceans can also be an important source of phosphorus, but since these sediments are contaminated with other heavy metals, they must be purified before entering the laboratory.
Volcanic igneous rock
The igneous rock obtained from volcanic lava has less impurity than the ocean floor sediments.
After extracting and adding phosphate-containing minerals to the laboratory, the stages of fertilizer preparation in the laboratory are as follows:
1- Separation of impurities from minerals
2- Extraction of weak phosphoric acid from the reaction of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid in the vicinity of water
3- Combination of weak phosphoric acid with ammonia (liquid and gas)
How to give phosphate fertilizer to the tree
The method of giving fertilizer to the tree is as follows: stand about one meter away from the tree trunk and dig holes with a depth of 15 to 30 cm and pour the fertilizers into them and then cover them with soil. Keep the width and radial distance of the pits from each other about 20 to 30 cm. With this method, a system centered on the tree trunk is created. When fertilizing, it is important to pay attention to the fact that the fertilizers should not be in contact with the roots of the trees and there must be a layer of sand or soil between them. Experience has proven that fertilizing in this way is much more effective than sprinkling fertilizer on the entire surface of the shade of trees, and it is also economically more affordable. Paying attention to the uniform distribution of fertilizer is very effective in the growth of the tree, and if only one side of the tree is fed with the right fertilizer, you will see that the leaves of the same part have more growth than the opposite side. For this reason, to prevent the caricature of the tree, it is recommended to spread the fertilizer evenly at the base of the tree.